Comparison Of Mitosis And Meiosis

Comparison Of Mitosis And Meiosis

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17 Feb 2017

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Title : Comparison Of Mitosis And Meiosis
Uploaded By : Tangerine Education
Album : Tangerine Education Official Album / Single
Source : YT
Type of file : Audio MP3 (.mp3), WebM, mp4
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Comparison Of Mitosis And Meiosis, Erika Tan explains the similarities and differences about mitosis/meiosis needed for the AP exam.

*** If there are any pictures used in this video, they are NOT MINE and I will not take credit for them. ***

TRANSCRIPT:
Mitosis and meiosis have a lot in common, but it’s important to know what sets both of them apart from each other for the AP exam. So let’s start off with the purpose of each one: mitosis is used for asexual reproduction, growth, and repair. Meiosis is for sexually reproducing organisms, since it produces gametic cells that have half the number of chromosomes as a regular body cell. This is what we call haploid. So haploid cells have half the number of chromosomes and diploid cells have the regular number of chromosomes. That means mitosis produces cells with 46 chromosomes in humans, while meiosis only produces cells with 23 chromosomes. The reason for this halved number in meiosis is for a zygote to develop. One gamete from each parent donates 23 chromosomes each, resulting in a 46-chromosome zygote. Also, if you’ve seen my meiosis video, you’ll know that all of the resulting cells from meiosis aren’t all identical, and this is due to something called crossing over. Crossing over is when paired chromosomes from each parent flop over each other, exchanging genetic information. As meiosis continues, the cells divide and the end result looks like this.
Let’s go over the differences by looking at each step of mitosis and meiosis. Starting with prophase, we see that in mitosis, the chromosomes have duplicated. Each of these is a sister chromatid. But in meiosis, homologous chromosomes from each parent have paired to form structures called tetrads. Crossing over can then occur.
At metaphase, the sister chromatids line up at the metaphase plate in mitosis. In meiosis, we can see that the tetrads are lining up. Now, at anaphase, it’s clear that the sister chromatids are being pulled apart in mitosis, but they’re staying together in meiosis. It’s the homologous chromosomes that are being pulled apart, not the sister chromatids. Then telophase is when the cells divide.
So we’re done with mitosis, but we’re not quite done with meiosis yet. But here’s the best part: after this division in meiosis, what happens next is called meiosis II, which is exactly like mitosis. So, the sister chromatids are paired up in prophase, they’re still lined up at metaphase, and they’re pulled apart at anaphase. At telophase, however, we see FOUR different daughter cells, as opposed to two identical daughter cells in mitosis. Finally, we know that there’s no crossing over occurring in mitosis, since the chromosomes are only from one person.
Okay, I hope this video helped you understand the differences between mitosis and meiosis. Hope to see you soon in another video...


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